Waste management, one of the branches of applied rudology, includes collection, trading and brokerage, transport, treatment (waste treatment), reuse or disposal of waste, usually those resulting from human activities. This management aims to reduce their effects on human and environmental health and the living environment. In recent decades, emphasis has been placed on reducing the impact of waste on nature and the environment and on their recovery from a circular economy perspective.
All waste is concerned (solid, liquid or gaseous, toxic, dangerous, etc.), each with its own specific sector. Management styles differ depending on whether you are in a developed or developing country, in a city or in a rural area, whether you are dealing with an individual, an industrialist or a trader. Non-hazardous waste is usually managed under the responsibility of local authorities, while commercial and industrial waste tends to be under their own responsibility. In France "Any producer or holder of a waste is responsible for this waste: that is to say, it is required to ensure or ensure the management. This responsibility extends to the final disposal or recovery of the waste ".
The sorting of waste and the selective collection are actions consisting of separating and recovering waste according to their nature, at the source, to avoid contact and contamination. This allows them to be given a "second life", most often by reuse and recycling, thus avoiding their simple destruction by incineration or abandonment in landfill and, consequently, to reduce the ecological footprint.
Solid waste management is the process of treatment and of solid, organic and hazardous waste disposal "(Manual Sphere). Solid waste can vary considerably in type and quantity, for example: (i) urban solid waste; ii) waste electrical and electronic (WEEE); iii) medical waste; iv)
waste produced by disasters; etc. The waste in these categories can be partially or totally dangerous.
Hazardous wastes are harmful or potentially unhealthy
for human health and the environment. Procedures particular when handled, processed andelimination are thus necessary.
Solid waste management has a significant impact on health and
more specifically on environmental health.
Waste management has important social implications (protection),
several individuals are involved in the activities of
informal management of waste), policies (the cleanliness of the city is
significant for the creation of consensus), health (epidemics) and
environmental aspects (water and soil contamination, gas emissions
Recycling is a process for the treatment of metals, plastics, waste (industrial waste or household waste) which makes it possible to reintroduce, in the production cycle of a product, materials that made up a similar product that had reached the end of its life, or manufacturing residues. One of the examples that illustrates this process is that of the manufacture of new bottles with the glass of used bottles, even if it is considerably less energy efficient than the system of returnable glass containers (milk, mineral water, vinegar, oil , vina, jars of yogurt ...) in the 1950s.
Recycling has two major ecological consequences:
reducing the volume of waste, and therefore the pollution they would cause (some materials take decades or even centuries to degrade);
the preservation of natural resources, since the recycled material is used in place of the one that should have been extracted1.
It is one of the economic activities of the consumer society. Some processes are simple and inexpensive but, conversely, others are complex, expensive, and unprofitable. In this area, the objectives of ecology and those of consumers come together but sometimes differ; it is then the legislator who intervenes. Thus, especially since the 1970s, recycling is an important activity of the economy and the living conditions of developed countries.