Al-usayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: ; 10 October 625 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Al, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bay (Arabic: , Household) of Muhammad, and Ahl al-Kis' (Arabic: , People of the Cloak), as well as being the third Shia Imam.
Husayn ibn Ali became the Imam of Shia Islam after the death of his older brother, Hasan ibn Ali, in 670 (AH 50 AH). His father's supporters (Arabic: , Sh'a 'Al) in Kufah gave their allegiance to him. Husayn did not accept the request of Muawiyah for the succession of his son, Yazid I, and considered this action a breach of the HasanMuawiya treaty.
When Muawiyah died in 680 AD, Husayn refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid, who had just been appointed as Umayyad caliph by Muawiyah. He insisted on his legitimacy based on his own special position as a direct descendant of Muhammad and his legitimate legatees. As a consequence, he left Medina, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca in AH 60. There, the people of Kufah sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufah, but, at a place near it known as Karbala, his caravan was intercepted by Yazid's army. He was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 (10th of Muarram (Arabic: ), 61 AH) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn's six month old son, Ali al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners. Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate's legitimacy, and ultimately overthrow it by the Abbasid Revolution.
Husayn is highly regarded by Shia Muslims for refusing to pledge allegiance to Yazid, the Umayyad caliph, because he considered the rule of the Umayyads unjust. The annual memorial for him and his children, family and his companions is the first month in the Islamic calendar, that is Muharram, and the day he was martyred is the Ashura (tenth day of Muharram, a day of mourning for Shi'i Muslims). His action at Karbala fueled the later Shia movements. The martyrdom of Husayn was decisive in shaping Islamic and Shia history. The timing of the Imam's life and martyrdom were crucial as they were in one of the most challenging periods of the 7th century. During this time, Umayyad oppression was rampant, and the stand the Imam and his followers took became a symbol of resistance inspiring future uprisings against oppressors.
usayn ibn 'Al
(Salafis honour rather than venerate him).
Major shrine Imam Husayn Shrine, Karbala, Iraq
Main articles: Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali and Daughters of Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn's maternal grandmother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, and his paternal grandparents were Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad. Husayn and Hasan were regarded by Muhammad as his own sons due to his love for them and as they were the sons of his daughter Fatima and he regarded her children as his own children and descendants. He said "Every mother's children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatimah for I am their father and lineage" Thus descendants of Fatimah are descendants of Muhammad, and part of his Bayt.
Ali Zayn al-'bidn (Arabic: , "Adornment of the Worshipers") (b. AH 36)
Sakinah (b. AH 38), (Mother:Shahr Banu)
Ali al-Akbar (b. AH 42)
Fatimah as-Sughra (b. AH 45) (Mother:Layla)
Sukaynah (b. AH 56)
Ali al-Asghar (b. AH 60) (Mother: Rubab)
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